There are many Types of NoSQL databases

May 16, 2023

Today is a data-driven world, and data is being stored constantly in different forms. While you are working on the software project. Scalability and Security are two of the most important features of the database that need to be considered while choosing the database for your project. You must be aware of the traditional SQL database, in this blog we are going to discuss NoSQL databases and the types of NoSQL databases. Let us first understand what a NoSQL database is.

NoSQL Database

NoSQL stands for Not only SQL. It is a mechanism to store data in non-tabular form, which was done in traditional databases. One of the promising features of NoSQL databases is it provides flexibility for data storage which is a requirement for today’s applications. It is a non-relational database and also a distributed database. It is easier to manage large amounts of data with a NoSQL database. The flexibility, scalability, and performance make it a suitable choice for developing efficient and high-performing applications.

Features of NoSQL database

  1. Scalability
  2. Data distribution
  3. Multiple data compatibility
  4. Minimal downtime
  5. Flexibility and Performance

Different types of NoSQL database

Based on how the data is stored, NoSQL is commonly categorized into 4 types:

  1. Document database
  2. Graph database
  3. Column-oriented databases
  4. Key-Value Stores

Document database

In this category of the database, the data is stored in the form of a document as the name suggests. The format of the document is not restricted to one type, it supports multiple such as JSON, BSON, and XML. In this type of database, the documents are indexed which results in faster querying.

Document databases are preferred for content management systems, web analytics, and e-commerce applications.
Some of the document databases-
BaseX, CrateDB, Apache CouchDB, OrientDB, MongoDB, IBM Cloudant.

Features of Document Database

  1. Schema Less
    The documents in the database may have different schemas. Therefore there is no pre-defined schema in this type of database.
  2. No foreign keys
    Documents are independent of each other and this database doesn’t follow relational dynamics, there is no requirement for foreign keys.
  3. Easy creation and maintenance
    It is a hassle-free process to make any updates or changes in the data, open the document and make the changes.
  4. Supports multiple formats
    This database saves and creates documents in multiple formats such as JSON, BSON, and XML which are easily and freely available.

Graph Database

It stores nodes and relationships in place of tables or documents. The data is stored in the form of nodes and the connection between them is shown with the help of links or relations. The focus of this database is on the relationship between the data.

Graph databases are commonly used in social media, knowledge graphs, fraud detection, personalization, network management, and logistics.
Some of the Graph databases-
Infinite Graph, OrientDB, FlockDB, Neo4J, ArangoDB, TigerGraph.

Features of Graph Databases

  1. Relationship representation
    The relationship representation is clear and straightforward in the graph database.
  2. Query output
    The output of the query is real-time results.
  3. Updation
    One just needs to add a new node to the database for any updation required which is a simple and quick process.

Key-Value Stores

It is one of the simpler models for data storage. The data in this type is stored in key-value pairs. Data is associated with a unique key, which is useful while retrieving data from the database. In this format, each key is unique and can be only a string, while the value can be different data types such as strings, or numbers.

Session management, User preference, User profiles, shopping carts, and product recommendations are some of the cases where key-value stores as a database are the most suitable.
Some of the Key-value stores databases-
Berkeley DB, Redis, CouchBase server, Apache Cassandra, Aerospike, Amazon DynamoDB.

Features of Key-Value Stores database

  1. Data Type Support
    The data is stored in several formats such as JSON, XML, and flexible schemas.
  2. Scalability and Reliability
    Scalability is one of the most important advantages of this type. It supports a process called sharding, which means different parts of data can be stored in different servers promoting scalability.
  3. Fast
    It uses the key for retrieving data from the database, and also for any other operations such as writing, updating, or deleting, which makes it faster and more efficient.
  4. Mobility
    It is one of the key features of Key-value store databases. It doesn’t have any query language therefore it is easier to move from one operating system to another without changing code or causing disruption.

Column-oriented database

Data is stored in the form of columns which is opposite to that of relational databases in which data was stored in rows. This system is efficient when the user wants to run analytics on some columns. This can be done simply without having to read all the columns, which leads to memory consumption. The working of column-oriented databases is based on Google’s BigTable.

Business Intelligence, Analytics, Big Data processing, CRM, Data warehouses, and library card catalogs are some of the common applications of Column-oriented databases
Some of the column-oriented databases-
Hbase, Hypertable, Cassandra, Amazon SimpleDB, Accumulo.

Features of Column-oriented database

  1. Compression
    Since the data is stored in columns, it is highly compressed without any difficulty as compared to relational databases. This helps in efficient memory usage.
  2. Flexibility
    It provides immense flexibility for modifications, since columns are independent of each other, adding new columns is a simple process.
  3. Large Data
    In column-oriented databases, large amounts of data are easily manageable making it a preferred choice for applications handling large data.
  4. Fast Loading and Aggregation queries
    It provides a very quick loading speed in comparison to other databases. Also, aggregation queries like Sum and Average are efficient and fast since data is stored in a column fashion.


We have discussed different NoSQL database types, their advantages, and applications, and also mentioned NoSQL database examples that are popularly used in different types of projects. It would have given you an idea about why companies are opting for NoSQL databases. Though it would completely depend on the requirement of the project. You can discuss your project with us and we would provide you with complete consultancy. We are an experienced Web development company with vast experience in catering to businesses coming from various industries.


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